In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, various countries in the Southern African region have put in place restrictions on gatherings, free movement, commerce and expression. Many of these measures limit human rights and result in criminal sanctions for breach. This policy brief looks at these criminalising provisions within the context of the enabling legal and constitutional environment in Lesotho, Malawi, Eswatini, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia. Despite their different approaches, the restrictions imposed by all the countries under review have the potential to infringe on fundamental rights.
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