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Southern Africa bears a disproportionate burden of HIV globally and indications are that stigma and discrimination remain high, not only amongst people living with HIV but also amongst those most vulnerable to HIV. Stigma and discrimination violate human rights and are barriers to HIV prevention and treatment.

This research report is concerned with the availability, effectiveness and sufficiency of complaints processes providing accountability and redress for persons who experience discrimination in healthcare settings. The report focuses on the experiences of sex workers, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons, women living with HIV, and persons with disabilities in Botswana, Malawi and Zambia.

This is a preliminary research report which is primarily aimed at assisting the Southern Africa Litigation Centre (SALC) to develop relevant advocacy and litigation strategies to address systemic healthcare discrimination in Botswana, Malawi and Zambia.

To request a hard copy please send your name and contact details to

Download a full version of the report here.

Chapter by chapter:

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Context
Chapter 3. Analytical Framework
Chapter 4. Domestic Protections against Stigma and Discrimination: Legal, Policy and Ethical Standards
Chapter 5. Mechanisms for Accountability and Redress
Chapter 6. Experiences of Stigma and Discrimination in Healthcare
Chapter 7. Strengthening Accountability and Redress
Chapter 8. Recommendations


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